This term is defined as rearing and keeping of birds such as fowl, duck, hen, for egg and meat production.
In case of chicken, several practices are followed depending on the type of the bird reared, for eg. Broiler farming (for meat production), layer farming (for table egg production), breeder farming (for hatching/ fertile egg production)etc.
Poultry birds and their eggs are a rich source of nutrients.
Chicken breeds classified on four major classes:
|Skin colour||Yellow||Yellow||White||Yellow or white|
|Examples||Rhode Island Red, Plymouth rock, New Hampshire||Brahma, cochin, Langshan||Cornish, Sussex, Australorp||White leghorn Minorca, Ancona|
IMPORTANT BREEDS WITH THEIR CHARACTERISTICS:
|1||Rhode Island Red||New England||Dual purpose breed, produce 100 egg/yr, rectangular body|
|2||White leghorn||Italy||Light body weight, highest egg producing breed in the world|
|3||Red Cornish||England||Famous in America for meat, hardest breed|
|4||Plymouth rock||America||Broiler produce best quality meat|
|5||New Hampshire||America||Popular for rapid growth, fertility, large sized eggs and good quality meat|
|6||Minorca||Italy||Largest and heaviest of Mediterranean breeds called red faced black Spanish|
|7||Aseel||Andhra Pradesh, UP, Rajasthan||Famous for fighting sports|
|8||Kadaknath||GI Tag (MP)||Black colored meat|
Different types of poultry house
|Type of bird||Sq ft/bird inside||Sq ft/bird outside|
Floor and perch space: (for chickens)
|Type||Floor space (bird/m2)||Floor space (ft2/bird)||Perch space (per bird)|
Poultry housing system are classified into three systems:
|Type||Age (in weeks)||Deep litter (ft2)||Deep litter (ft2)|
|Egg type chicken||0-8|
|Meat type chicken||0-4|
|Type||Age (in weeks)|
|Up to 18 days||450 cm2 (0.5 sq. ft)|
|From 19 days to 42 days||1000cm2 (1.1 sq. ft)|
Principle of ration determination:
Method of feeding:
|Age of birds||Water amount per 100 birds|
|0-2 weeks||4.5 to 6.5 litre/day|
|10-15 weeks||18-22.5 litre/day|
|Laying hens||27-36 litre/day|
|Bacterial||Fowl cholera, fowl coryza pullorum, salmonellosis|
|Viral||Infectious bronchitis, Ranikhet (new castle), Marek’s disease (fowl paralysis), fowl pox, gumbroa|
|Fungal||Aspergillosis (brooder pneumonia) & aflatoxicosis|
|Parasitic||lice, mites, tick and fleas(external) and roundworm, tapeworm and hexamitasis (internal)|
|Diseases & disorders||Deficiency|
|Nutritional roup||Vit A|
|Curled toe paralysis||Vit b1|
|Crazy chick disease/encephalomalacia||Vit E|
|Swollen hock syndrome||Zn|
|Femoral head necrosis||Mo|
Hatching : process of breaking out of an egg shell after completion of incubation
A. keep 1 male for each 10-12 females.
B. should be kept with females at least 1 week to insure high egg fertility.
60% up to 18 days
Once every 4 hrs up to 18 days
A. Providing temperature and humidity for normal development of embryo in egg. It may be natural or artificial.
B. An apparatus by which eggs are hatched artificially.
C. Incubation period in chicken is 21 days.
To provide 21% O2 in the air.
Oviposition: Act or process of egg laying in birds.
Ornithology: Study of birds which are not classes as poultry.
Molting: Natural physiological process for the birds to renew old feathers at the end of the first year of laying.
Dubbing: Removal of comb may be restricted to in day old chicks belonging to breeds, which have larger/lopped comb.
Debeaking: Cutting off part of the upper beak. Helps in preventing peaking injuries and cannibalism among chicks. Removal of 1/4th upper side and 1/8th part lower side beak at 14–15-week-old chicks.
Brooding: Rearing of one week old chicks to the age of 4 weeks age in a brooder.
One brooding unit: 250 chicks, four 60-watt bulbs hanging at 6-inch ht, a brooder guard of 5 ft radius, 3 feeders (egg tray) & 4 waterers.
Rearing: rearing of 4-week-old chick to 8 weeks age.
Broiler: 8-10 weeks of age wt 1.5-2.0 kg with a tender soft meat.
Roaster: 12-16 week and heavier than broiler.
Grower: 9–20-week-old (fully grown) hen or productive hen.
layer: 18-20 weeks age for egg production.
Canonizations: Removal of the testes in the male chicks at the below 8 months age and those birds are known as capon (Castrated male fowl)
Pullet: Female chicken lay 1st time.
Loafer: Unproductive layer
Candling of eggs: process of holding a strong light above or below the egg to observe the embryo. It is done twice by electric Candler in a dark room
1. First candling: on the 7th day of incubation to discard infertile eggs.
2. Second candling: on 18th day of incubation to discard dead-in-shell.
Cannibalism: eating of own species & feather picking in poultry.
A. Cause: occurs in flocks fed fiber –free diet
B. Deficiency of arginine and methionine are more responsible for development of cannibalistic activity. Deficiency of Na (Sodium) may also be responsible for this condition.
C. At initial stage of chicks to prevent cannibalism by providing light in brooder house 24 hrs. with 60-watt bulb for each 200 sq. ft space.